Lunes, 20 de Agosto de 2018

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    2006 - Decreto Constitucional (Gibraltar Constitution Order)

  • Escudo de armas de la Corte de Justicia en Gibraltar, réplica del Reino Unido

    Gibraltar ha contado con cuatro decretos constitucionales emitidos por Londres en 1950, 1964, 1969 y, el último y actual, en 2006. Esta Gibraltar Constitution Order, que es su denominación legal, fue el desenlace de un proceso iniciado en 1999 por el que se pretendía modernizar las relaciones entre las denominadas colonias y territorios dependientes de la Corona con el Reino Unido.

    Aquel proceso generó muchas expectativas entre los gibraltareños, que esperaban una declaración plena de autodeterminación, pero el decreto promulgado no podía avanzar más allá de los límites que le imponían el Tratado de Utrecht y las resoluciones de la ONU, reconociendo el propio Gobierno británico que “la independencia sólo sería una opción para Gibraltar con el consentimiento de España”.

    También hubo electores que no sintieron que esta nueva norma protegiera suficientemente los compromisos británicos respecto a la colonia, por lo que entre unos y otros hubo una destacada movilización en su contra durante  el referéndum de 2006. La participación fue sólo del 60,4%, mientras que en el anterior había sido del 87,9%, y los votos afirmativos sólo llegaron al 60,24%.

    En el texto se define a  Gibraltar como dependencia del Reino Unido y declara expresamente que la constitución no disminuye la soberanía británica. Considera que el grado de autonomía otorgado por el decreto constitucional es “compatible con la soberanía británica y con el hecho de que el Reino Unido sigue siendo plenamente responsable de las relaciones exteriores de Gibraltar”. Asegura, también que no cederá esta soberanía sin el consentimiento de la población.Los cambios que estableció la nueva norma se referían, sobre todo, a la entonces Asamblea de Gibraltar, que pasó a configurarse en Parlamento de Gibraltar, aumentando el número de sus representantes de 15 a 17, y a la disminución de los poderes que correspondían al gobernador británico, otorgando más capacidad ejecutiva al gobierno local.

    Referencias a las competencias británicas en el texto original inglés:

    At the Court at Buckingham Palace

    THE 14th DAY OF DECEMBER 2006

    PRESENT,

    THE QUEEN’S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY IN COUNCIL

    Whereas Gibraltar is part of Her Majesty’s dominions and Her Majesty’s Government have given assurances to the people of Gibraltar that Gibraltar will remain part of Her Majesty’s dominions unless and until an Act of Parliament otherwise provides, and furthermore that Her Majesty’s Government will never enter into arrangements under which the people of Gibraltar would pass under the sovereignty of another state against their freely and democratically expressed wishes:

    And whereas the people of Gibraltar have in a referendum held on 30th November 2006 freely approved and accepted the Constitution annexed to this Order which gives the people of Gibraltar that degree of self-government which is compatible with British sovereignty of Gibraltar and with the fact that the United Kingdom remains fully responsible for Gibraltar’s external relations:

    Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by virtue and in exercise of all the powers enabling Her to do so, is pleased, by and with the advice of Her Privy Council, to order, and it is ordered, as follows:-

    Citation, commencement and interpretation

    1.

    (1) This Order may be cited as the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006.

    (2) This Order shall be published in the Gazette and shall come into force on the day it is so published.

    (3) In this Order –

    “the appointed day” means such day as may be prescribed by the Governor by proclamation in the Gazette;

    “the Constitution” means the Constitution set out in Annex 1 to this Order;

    . . . . . . .

    Governor’s special responsibilities

    47- (1) The Governor, acting in his discretion, shall be responsible in Gibraltar for the conduct (subject to this Constitution and any other law) of the following matters –

    (a) external affairs;

    (b) defence;

    (c) internal security, including (subject to section 48) the police;

    (d) such functions in relation to appointments to public offices and related matters as are conferred on him by this Constitution:

    Provided that the Governor shall in respect of external affairs as far as practicable act in consultation with the Chief Minister.

    (2) For the avoidance of doubt it is declared that any matter which falls outside the special responsibilities of the Governor set out in subsection (1), or which is not a function which this Constitution or any other law requires the Governor to exercise in his discretion, is the responsibility of Ministers.

    (3) Without prejudice to the United Kingdom’s responsibility for Gibraltar’s compliance with European Union law, matters which under this Constitution are the responsibility of Ministers shall not cease to be so even though they arise in the context of the European Union.

    (4) The exercise by the Governor of his responsibility for external affairs and defence is without prejudice to the overall responsibility of Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom for these matters.

    . . . . . . .

    ANNEX 2 TO THE ORDER

    Section 2

    TRANSITIONAL AND OTHER PROVISIONS

    Power of Her Majesty

    8. There is retained by Her Majesty full power to make laws from time to time for the peace, order and good government of Gibraltar (including, without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, laws amending or revoking the Constitution).